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Gambling Awards: 6 Reasons Why They Don’t Work & What You Can Do About It

Gambling on the Internet has come up in a big way in the past few years. It has become an easy, convenient way to play some of the most popular games like Poker,BlackJack,Roulette,Baccarat, Video Poker, Slots, etc. that offer you the highest potential for maximizing your winnings or minimizing your losses, and are usually a part of every player’s game plan. You could choose to play alone or with other players, enter tournaments or play for the big jackpot- all in the comfort of your home!

Online casinos are perfect for you, if you:

1. Don’t like the noise, distractions and glitzy ambience of traditional brick and mortar casinos.

2. Like to play at odd hours, without the inconvenience of having to drive to a casino at those odd hours!

3. Are a novice, and would like to practice your favorite games and get acquainted with their rules and finer aspects thoroughly before going on for professional gambling, or before taking on the additional distractions of a brick and mortar casino. royal online

4. Are a novice, and would like the option of getting free money play, so that you may practice without the risk of losing real money.

Different types of online casinos

The Internet is flooded with hundreds of online casinos, most of them, more or less, similar on the surface. You can select a casino once you are aware of the different types of online casinos and what they offer. Broadly speaking, online casinos can be divided into two broad groups based on their interface:web-based casinos and download-based casinos (there are some online casinos offer more than one interface):

Web-based casinos: Web-based online casinos are websites where users may directly play casino games without loading any software to the local computer. Games are mainly presented through browser plugins of Macromedia Flash, Macromedia Shockwave, or Java and require browser support for the above-mentioned plugins. Also, bandwidth should be adequate as all the graphics, sounds and animations are loaded through the web via the plugin. A very small number of web-based casinos allow games played through a plain HTML interface.

Download-based casinos: Download-based online casinos are the most common of online casino web sites. Anyone using these websites would need to download certain software to play casino games. Once the required software has been installed, it connects to the casino service provider and handles contact without browser support. One advantage of download-based casinos is speed, since there is no need to load graphics from the Internet. The downside is that, there is an initial download time to install the program. There is also the risk of the program containing malware (though this is very uncommon).

There are also additional differences like the gaming environment and quality of interaction that, though minor, do differentiate one casino from another in terms of overall experience.

Checks to keep in mind while selecting an online casino

Being acquainted with the basic differences between different casinos and knowing your options is the first step towards selecting a casino. Once this is done, you can analyze and short-list a suitable online casino on the basis of some important parameters and check points listed below:

1. Is the casino licensed? There are plenty of unlicensed, illegal gambling casinos, which are nothing more than money scam operations.

2. Where is the casino licensed? While online casinos licensed in Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Gibraltar, Kahnawake, Netherlands Antilles, United Kingdom and the West Indies are recommended, online casinos licensed in Eastern Europe should be approached with extreme caution.

3. Does the casino offer 24×7 phone, fax, live chat and email support? It might be a good idea to actually call up on the numbers listed and find out about the payout time, policies, etc.

4. Is the online casino officially recognized by various gaming bodies and authorities? For instance, are the payout percentages of the online casino independently reviewed by auditors such as PricewaterhouseCoopers?

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Casino Tokens and Chips

Casino chips are small discs that are used as currency within casinos. Casino chips are made of either coloured metal, compression moulded clay or injection moulded plastic. Metal chips are primarily used in slot machines whilst clay or plastic chips are used in table games.

Casino chips can be acquired by exchanging money for them at the casino cage, at the tables, e.g. the roulette table or at the cashier station. The casino chips generally have no value outside of the casino, although in Las Vegas some casinos might honour chips from other casinos, or some businesses – such as waiters or taxi’s, especially for tips, in gambling towns might honour them informally.

Casino chips were employed for several reasons, the main one’s being chips are more convenient to use than currency and also make theft and counterfeiting more difficult. Because of the size, regularity and colouring patterns of stacks of chips they are easier to count in stacks compared to paper currency when being used on a table. The main advantage of this is that it’s easier for the pit boss or security to verify the amount being paid, reducing mistakes by the dealer. Furthermore it is observed that customers gamble more freely with replacement currencies than with cash.

Many casinos have stopped the use of metal chips (and coins) in their slot machines in favour of pre-pay cards or paper receipts. Although these methods are costly to implement they eliminate coin handling expenses and jamming problems in machines that took coins. With the coin mechanisms removed from the slot / fruit machine there is more space to keep game specific technology, enhancing the users overall gaming experience. UFABET

The hobby of collecting casino chips and gaming tokens is becoming increasingly popular, with a collectors club being formed in 1988. Some casino chips are worth up to $100,000. Several casinos sell custom-made sets of chips and one or two decks of cards stamped with the name of the casino on them.

Despite the fact gambling houses were legalised in Venice in 1626 actual poker chips was not used for over two hundred years. Back in the 19th century and prior, poker players seemed to use any small valuable object imaginable. Early poker players sometimes used jagged gold pieces, gold nuggets, gold dust, or coins as well as “chips” primarily made of ivory, bone, wood, paper and a composition made from clay and shellac.

Each casino has its own unique set of chips; this is even if the casino is part of a larger company that owns many casinos. This distinguishes the casinos chips from the others; this is because each casino chip on the casino floor has to be backed up with the appropriate amount of cash

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Handyman Services: Find a Professional Handyman That’s Right for Your Needs

As the name proposes, handyman services can come in handy when you need to find someone who can fix those little things that have gone wrong or that another contractor has left behind. This could be anything from doors or windows that don’t close properly, to leaks, a change of light bulbs or minor electrical repairs, to ground maintenance. Frequently, it is a time-consuming mission to find someone to do unusual tasks at home or at the office to repair those that cannot be fixed by today’s automated solutions; that’s when the handyman comes to your rescue!

These services consist of repairs and refashioning, minor electrical or plumbing repairs and services, landscaping, grass maintenance and concrete services. These are just a few of the countless things that might need to be fixed in an office, a business or at a home. Although home handyman services consign to all sorts of home repairs and home enhancement projects, certified or professional handyman services employ people with expert skills that understand how to fix your issues without interrupting your business trading, office work or personal schedule. A professional handyman service can be relied upon for an extensive range of home or office property maintenance.

More and more people are so busy with their businesses, careers and families that they have little or no time to spare for household maintenance or small repairs. Instead of postponing these tasks for long periods of time, hiring handyman services is the perfect solution. Typically they can be contacted to review the site and provide an obligation free quote and assess the type of work that is required..This will give you ample time to decide whether the handyman service is the right fit for your company or home. You can then discuss with the handyman how to work around your everyday activities.

In addition, professional handyman services make use of professionals like plumbers, electricians and home decorators to work on particular tasks. For instance, it can be a more complex task to remodel a bathroom as opposed to fixing a leaky toilet. When such cases happen, you would also need not only the services of a plumber but an electrician, as well. The electrician has the expertise to do the bathroom lighting, the plumber installs all the piping and drainage and the handyman is responsible for the rest.

Any work around the office, store location, restaurant or home has an element of risk attached to it, particularly anything to with electrical or plumbing changes. A professional handyman is experienced and will know what safety measures are required. Drilling a hole in a wall may seem basic but many accidents have happened as a result of over-enthusiastic laymen. Engaging in the services of a professional handyman will give you peace of mind. concreter sydney

Keeping your office, business property, store, restaurant or home and its contents well cared for is important to keep its value and prevent major damages and disruptions.

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Understand How To Opt For High Quality Online Casinos

While you explore online casino websites, you will explore both “exceptional” and “awful” ones. Appreciating the difference is crucial. Fortunately this is a manageable exercise.

All players must gamble at casinos that are licensed. Legitimate licensing authorities carry out due diligence of the operators’ capacity to conduct online casinos, in particular regarding their past experience and financial strengths. Guaranteeing that the administration systems of the casinos have the required checks and balances for the players getting their dues in time is one of their chief duties. Furthermore, they attest that the software and the games are fair. It is only then that they issue licenses to the operators. Usually the license details are overtly displayed at the home page of the web sites of the online casinos. The very best casinos go beyond what is mandated in the license terms. The games are checked out on a regular basis for fairness and average payouts by independent experts and the reports are displayed at the websites of the online casinos.

Special software forms the heart of the casinos. There are different types of software, which the players must be knowledgeable about. The download software entails that the application be installed in the players’ hard drives. This can use up substantial space on the hard drive but usually delivers more games. The instant play software will allow players to gamble in the browsers of their computers without any downloading or storing of software. Permanent hard drive space is not used but the game offering is more modest. A number of online casinos market a limited number of the best casino games for wagering on mobile hand sets, thus permitting players to wager while they are on the move. Without exception all these applications are based on random number generation. The haphazard numbers generated by the software are adapted to outcomes of card dealing, or craps dice, or roulette wheel or slots machine spins. Many casinos proffer what is known as live dealer games. The games like roulette, blackjack and baccarat are actually conducted in a casino setting and the video is streamed over the Web to the players’ computers. UFABET

An important issue that players have at online casinos is whether the sensitive information offered such as credit card details is collected safely and whether the financial transactions are conducted securely. The standard response to this by online casinos is that making and receiving payments online is as safe as online banking transactions and substantially safer than using credit cards at restaurants. And this is no idle assertion. Online casinos use the newest firewall systems and the most current encryption technologies to confirm the security of sensitive information and financial activity.

Discerning online casinos are extremely user friendly. Many of them have thorough FAQ sections at their websites giving thorough details about their operations. Casinos also have a trained, courteous, and capable customer support teams that can be contacted 24/7. Players can communicate with them over phone or using e-mail. However, the simplest method is live chat where the interaction is prompt, in real time and free.

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What to Think About Before Playing Casino Poker

“These two have no idea what they’re about to walk into. Down here to have a good time, they figure ‘why not give poker a try?’ After all, how different can it be from the home game they’ve played their whole lives?”

–Matt Damon as Mike McDermott in “Rounders”

For most of us, our first poker experience was nowhere near a casino. Either we learned from friends or family members in home games, or we plugged into the online poker craze. Still, the idea of playing poker in an actual brick and mortar (B&M) casino, with all the attendant sights and sounds, is very tempting for most. So what do you need to know when transferring your home or online skills to casino play? There are many distinctions between online and B&M play, but two factors you may immediately want to consider are tells and casino type.

1. Tells

The main concern most people have when moving from online to B&M play regards tells. A tell is a physical action a player performs that may give opponents a clue to his hand, such as putting a hand to the face when bluffing. Online, since your opponents cannot see you, physical tells are not really concern (there are online tells, but that is beyond the scope of this article). In fact, one popular poker site has an advertising campaign where they invite those players who have a “bad poker face” to join, since no one can see your face online. In the movie “Rounders,” quoted at the beginning of this article, the villain is undone by the way in which he handles an Oreo cookie depending on whether or not he has a big hand. In reality, tells are rarely this extreme. Most of the time when you play in a casino, especially a “tourist” casino (see following), your opponents are much more concerned with what they are holding than what you are. Even when an opponent scrutinizes you, staring you down while contemplating a call, they’re generally just considering how much they like their own hand. Real tell-spotting requires long, careful observation of a player’s tendencies; you’re not likely to give much away on an individual hand. Professionals like to give the impression that they can just look right into your soul and know what you’re holding, but there’s a lot more to it than that. If you’re really worried you can buy a pair of reflective sunglasses to wear so no one can see your eyes. You can also always wait a predetermined amount of time (five or ten seconds) before acting whether your hand is strong or not so strong and pick a predetermined spot on the table to stare at while waiting for someone to respond to your action. UFABET

2. Type of Casino

All casinos are not created equal. Ten years ago, before the explosion in poker popularity, most casinos did not have a poker room at all, or at best, a small section of the blackjack floor partitioned away where two or three $1 to $2 limit games might take place. Obviously, things are different now, but there are still distinctly different types of casinos where one might play poker. The first is a Card Club. These are most commonly found in places like California, where poker as a game of skill is legal, but some other gambling games are not. Although they have expanded to other games, these clubs are primarily designed to play poker. As such, you are likely to find the most experienced poker players here, although not necessarily the strongest and they have their share of tourists as well. The more common type of casino is a Las Vegas Style Casino. These casinos have made fortunes on blackjack, slot machines and roulette and did not really focus on poker in the past as it is not a big money maker for the casino. Unlike the other games, which are against the House (the casino) and are structured so that the House always wins in the long run, poker is a game where the casino only makes money by taking a percentage of each pot (called “the rake,” usually no more than $4 a pot) for themselves. Although now rare, some casinos take “time” instead of a rake, meaning every half hour a representative of the casino comes around and collects a predetermined amount of money from each player in the game.

Of these Las Vegas Style Casinos, you will find what I think of as Poker Casinos vs. Tourist Casinos. A Poker Casino is one that has always had poker as part of its draw. These include The Bellagio and The Mirage in Las Vegas and the Taj Mahal and Borgata in Atlantic City. A Tourist Casino is one of the aforementioned casinos that did not have poker at all until the recent boom made it worthwhile as a draw to get players into their casino. Of course both of these types of casinos cater to tourists, but the Poker Casinos are where you are more likely to find professionals. Which of these types is more to your taste is for the individual to decide.

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Mobile Casino Games Testing Experience

Big online casinos such as 888 Casino as well as casinos with Microgaming and Playtech software, these names are the most famous suppliers of the gaming software, leading producers of software for the internet casinos, poker-rooms and now mobile casinos and mobile poker rooms. Also there is a number of mobile casinos with its proprietary software too.

I surely have not played in all casinos of these casino software suppliers, but in fact, the games from the same supplier do not differ at all, maybe only they have different logos and color of the lobby. If you would like to share your mobile gambling experience, do not hesitate to submit your mobile casino or mobile poker review via contact us page and we will be more than happy to post it no the website.

For the purpose of the mobile casinos games testing, any mobile casino from the same software supplier maybe considered the same as well, though they have some differences: support, bonuses, money depositing and withdrawal options.

I chose two games: mobile black jack game and video poker to test the mobile casinos. Firstly, because I like the games of skill, secondly black jack for example has very low house edge and possibility of large wins. So, if a casino player would wager in accordance to the basic strategy it would be easy to answer for the casino honesty, the honesty and fairness of games at the particular mobile casino.

I play 100 deals and write down the results. I follow the basic strategy in video poker and mobile black jack, mainly by equal stakes, though in black jack I can vary them if I want to. Analyzing black jack results, pay attention to such parameters as casino advantage – in theory it should be 0,5%, number of gains /draws/losses – must be 43%/9%/48% accordingly, number of black jacks – 5. Analyzing mobile video poker results expected value is not so illustrative because of the high dispersion. It’s better to pay attention to the frequency of winning combinations, upon the average on 100 game rounds there should be: 21 times – a pair, 13 times – two pairs, 7 times – a triplet, one time – straight flush and full house. Basically, in the short run if the full house combinations are absent, the payout should be something like – 9% (ratio of the four of a kind 6%, royal – 2%, straight flush – 0,5%). Where it is allowed I double the pairs, these results can be quite demonstrative. Here I would like to tell you that 100 deals are not enough to draw statistically verified conclusions (though, if the losses amounted to 15 rates in 100 black jack deals , than the probability that the game is honest is only 10%, and if the number increases up to 27 rates, then this probability decreases up to 1%). You can catch a winning streak of few hands or on the contrary. UFABET

Black jack is a good game for bonus players especially, because the players can calculate the house edge on the game precisely – assuming they play according to the correct basic black jack strategy – and the house edge at the black jack is very small because of the low negative deals fluctuations. Nonetheless, I guess you can trust the results of the casinos with a reputable name.

 

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How to Recognize a Top Online Casino

A number of people today wish for the peace and quiet offered by online casinos as opposed to the real variety. The noise of an actual casino might distract the players and an online casino offers total concentration for the players. It does away with the travel woes and the time spent on traveling as well. So for all the gambling buffs who wish to stay at home and gamble online casinos are the answer. Once you have decided that you are going to gamble at an online casino then start looking for one. This is a major problem for a first timer who has to choose from the wide variety of casinos available on the internet.

Among, the number of online casinos that are to be found, in this rigmarole of the internet, choosing the best, needs serious thought on part of the player. The first aspect, that the player needs to find out: whether the site chosen, has a safety certificate or not. This is very important. If the site does have a safety certificate then it will offer you peace of mind. You will not have to worry about the issue of misuse of personal data that you have provided. If the site does not have a safety certificate you must leave the site immediately.

The player must find out if the online casino publishes their winning odds and the lists of the prizes people have won in their online games. This provides credibility to the working of the online casino. To the player it provides transparency in the dealings of the online casino.

There are a large number of casinos to be found online but the best is the one which offers you the widest and the largest choice in games. If you are looking at only a particular game then choose the casino which offers the best version. If not a particular game, then look for online casinos which offer the largest variety. There are online casinos which offer only 40 games. There are other online casinos which offer nearly 270 odd games!!!

Check the different casinos for the bonuses and presents which the online casino has to offer. A number of online casinos offer great bonuses to new players in order to attract them. Do not let this opportunity go by. UFABET

Check out the interface of the game you wish to play at the online casino you have chosen. The interface has to be user friendly. It must be easy to understand and operate. You cannot take five days just to understand it. You should be able to press the ‘play’ and ‘deal’ buttons at the drop of a hat. It has to be mastered in order to enjoy the gambling experience and not lose money as well.

If an online casino meets all these requirements then you can go ahead and play. Keep in mind that you are in an online casino to enjoy yourself. Do just that. Make sure you are registered with an online casino of repute and not a shady one.

 

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Finding The Best Casino Bonuses Online

One of the greatest reasons why people love to play in an online casino is because of the best casino bonus they will gain especially for the first time gamblers who wanted to try out the gambling experience of playing online. However, bonuses are also one of the biggest sources of confusions for players.

That is why you have to look the most trusted online casino before you make any deposit and carefully read the wagering requirements and the terms and conditions. One of the reason why online casino created lots of bonuses option to all casino players is because there are so many competition that they want to attract the first time players and even the professional ones to play with them as they are giving away a huge casino bonuses.

Back then, some top online casinos do no impose any wagering requirements, you can get the bonus for free and automatically added to your casino account. But some bonus hunters and abusive casino players are going to make a multiple accounts and claiming the bonus and later one they gonna withdraw without playing in any casino games.

As a result, online casino strictly implemented the wagering requirements for every bonuses you can claim to prevent the bonus hunter and for players to play with them. As wagering requirement is now the important deal when claiming the bonuses. For you to understand how the bonuses work, let’s cite some example; if you have $100 bonus of a $100 deposit you make and with a 20X wagering requirement, you have to bet for a bout $2,000 before you can withdraw.

Moreover, there are so many online casino sites that you can get various of casino bonuses from. This is certainly an advantage and allows you to look through many different options and choose the best ones to you:

  • Welcome Bonuses or Sign Up Bonus- Offered to all new casino players when they join.
  • No Deposit – These require no deposit or buying chips online.
  • FREE Play – These give you a set amount of time to win.
  • Monthly Deals – Available to all casino players to claim once a month.
  • Exclusive Offers – Only available for regular casino players.

When estimating a casino bonus offer there are several things to consider. You have read carefully and understand the terms and conditions and the wagering requirement before taking the advantage of the bonus. Most top online casinos stated their rules clearly for the players to understand it easily. UFABET

More importantly, if you want to play any casino games you like and you want to withdraw your winning money anytime, you don’t have to claim the bonuses. Because once you claim the bonuses without a knowing the wagering requirement, you can’t withdraw your winning right away because you must meet the wagering requirement before you can withdraw.

Bonuses can be a great way to profit from every online casino however, before you can indulge of the bonuses you will have to choose, just make sure that you know and understand the information about casino bonus to make your gambling experience more profitable.

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Online Casinos – An Introduction

Online casinos are the internet version of the conventional casinos, which allow players to bet on games and win prizes online. Also called as the internet casinos or virtual casinos, these are being established on an increasing rate over the past few years. Online casinos use a Random Number Generator (RNG), which provides a sequence of numbers in a random order, based on which the table games and blackjack are played. Most of the online casinos either rent or purchase the software from companies such as Realtime Gaming, CryptoLogic Inc, Playtech, Microgaming and International Game Technology.

There are mainly two kinds of online casinos classified on the basis of the interfaces they use – downloadable casinos and web based casinos and some casinos offer both these types. A few online casinos offer live gaming options also, where the dealer will be in the studio and players can interact with the dealer real time.

Web Based Casinos

While playing in these casinos you don’t need to download the gaming software. Your computer browser needs to support plug-ins such as Macromedia Flash and Macromedia Shockwave. HTML interface is also allowed by some online casinos.

Downloadable Gaming Experience

In some kinds of online casinos, you need to download gaming software to play various casino games. These are faster than the web based casinos because the support plug-ins do not need to be downloaded, but are offered by the service provider. The software connects you to the service provider through which betting and playing happens. These are also superior in case of sound and graphics than the web based casinos.

Types of Online Casino Games UFABET

Most of the these casinos offer commonly played gamed like baccarat, craps, poker, blackjack, slot games, keno, roulette and bingo. For paying these games, you can put money through various deposit options.

Attractive Promotions

Most of the these casinos to attract new players offer many promotional offers and deals (casino bonus) on signing up and while depositing the initial amount. Almost all casinos promote casino bonus offers on a big way. Some bonus can be cashed out while some others can only be used while playing. Some of the casinos offer points instead of money, which increase after every online game you win. Comp points are also one of the popular ways of offering bonuses to online players, which can be cashed out as prize, money or com points itself. Wagering amount and points vary with each game you select to play. While some casinos offer attractive promotions on every game, some others might restrict the bonus offers to certain games. They accept many deposit options too.

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Executive Liability Insurance – Why Private Companies Need It

Since its inception about fifty years ago, D&O insurance has evolved into a family of products responding differently to the needs of publicly traded companies, privately held businesses and not-for-profit entities and their respective board members, officers and trustees.

Directors’ & Officers’ Liability, Executive Liability or Management Liability insurance are essentially interchangeable terms. However, insuring agreements, definitions, exclusions and coverage options vary materially depending upon the type of policyholder being insured and the insurer underwriting the risk. Executive Liability insurance, once considered a necessity solely for publicly traded companies, particularly due to their exposure to shareholder litigation, has become recognized as an essential part of a risk transfer program for privately held companies and not-for-profit organizations.

Optimization of protection is a common goal shared by all types of organizations. In our opinion, the best way to achieve that objective is through engagement of highly experienced insurance, legal and financial advisors who work collaboratively with management to continually assess and treat these specialized enterprise risk exposures.

Private Company D&O Exposures

In 2005, Chubb Insurance Group, one of the largest underwriters of D&O insurance, conducted a survey of the D&O insurance purchasing trends of 450 private companies. A significant percentage of respondents gave the following reasons for not purchasing D&O insurance:
• did not see the need for D&O insurance,
• their D&O liability risk was low,
• thought D&O risk is covered under other liability policies

The companies responding as non-purchasers of D&O insurance experienced at least one D&O claim in the five years preceding the survey. Results showed that private companies with 250 or more employees, were the subject of D&O litigation during the preceding five years and 20% of companies with 25 to 49 employees, experienced a D&O claim.

The survey revealed 43% of D&O litigation was brought by customers, 29% from regulatory agencies, and 11% from non-publicly traded equity securities holders. The average loss reported by the private companies was $380,000. Companies with D&O insurance experienced an average loss of $129,000. Companies without D&O insurance experienced an average loss of $480,000.

Some Common Examples of Private Company D&O Claims

• Major shareholder led buy-outs of minority shareholders alleging misrepresentations of the company’s fair market value
• purchaser of a company or its assets alleging misrepresentation
• sale of company assets to entities controlled by the majority shareholder
• creditors’ committee or bankruptcy trustee claims
• private equity investors and lenders’ claims
• vendors alleging misrepresentation in connection with an extension of credit
• consumer protection and privacy claims

Private Company D&O Policy Considerations

Executive Liability insurance policies for privately held companies typically provide a combination or package of coverage that includes, but may not be limited to: Directors’ & Officers’ Liability, Employment Practices Liability, ERISA Fiduciary Liability and Commercial Crime/ Fidelity insurance.

D&O policies, whether underwritten on a stand-alone basis or in the form of a combination-type policy form, are underwritten on a “claims-made” basis. This means the claim must be made against the Insured and reported to the insurer during the same effective policy period, or under a specified Extended (claims) Reporting Period following the policy’s expiration. This is a completely different coverage trigger from other liability policies such as Commercial General Liability that are traditionally underwritten with an “occurrence” trigger, which implicates the insurance policy that was in effect at the time of the accident, even if the claim is not reported until years later.

“Side A” coverage, which protects individual Insureds in the event the Insured entity is unable to indemnify individuals, is a standard agreement contained within many private company policy forms. These policies are generally structured with a shared policy limit among the various insuring agreements resulting in a more affordable insurance product tailored to small and mid-sized enterprises. For an additional premium, separate policy limits may be purchased for one or more of each distinct insuring agreement affording a more customized insurance package.

Also, policies should be evaluated to determine whether they extend coverage for covered “wrongful acts” committed by non-officers or directors, such as employees, independent contractors, leased, and part-time employees.

Imputation of Knowledge & Severability

Coverage can be materially affected if an Insured individual has knowledge of facts or circumstances or was involved in wrongful conduct that gave rise to the claim, prior to the effective date of policy under which the claim was reported. Policies differ as to whether and to what extent, the knowledge or conduct of one “bad actor” may be imputed to “innocent “individual Insureds and / or to the Insured entity.

“Severability”, is an important provision in D&O policies that is often overlooked by policyholders until it threatens to void coverage during a serious pending claim. The severability clause can be drafted with varying degrees of flexibility– from “partial” to “full severability.” A “full severability” provision is always most preferable from an Insured’s standpoint. Many D&O policies, impute the knowledge of certain policy-specified senior level officer positions to the Insured entity. That imputation of knowledge can operate to void coverage that might have otherwise been available to the Insured entity.

M&A and “Tail Coverage” Considerations

The “claims-made” coverage trigger is critically important in an M&A context where contingent liability risks are inherent. In these contexts, it’s important to evaluate the seller’s policies’ options to purchase a “tail” or “extended reporting period” for each of the target company’s policies containing a “claims-made” trigger.

A “tail” coverage option allows for the reporting of claims alleging “wrongful acts” that occurred during the expired policy period, yet were not actually asserted against the Insured until after the policy’s expiration, but instead were asserted during the “extended reporting” or “tail” period. An acquiring company’s insurance professional should work closely with legal counsel’s due diligence team to identify and present alternatives to manage contingent exposures.

What a Director or Officer Doesn’t Know Will Hurt Them

Directors’ & Officers’ Liability insurance policies were originally created solely to protect the personal assets of the individuals serving on public company boards and executive officers. In 1992, one of the most prominent D&O insurers led a major transformational change in D&O underwriting by expanding coverage to include certain claims against the insured entity. Entity coverage for publicly traded companies is typically restricted to securities claims, while privately held companies and not-for-profit organizations benefit from more comprehensive entity coverage because they lack the public securities risk exposure of publicly traded companies. bảo hiểm cháy nổ rạp chiếu phim

The “Claims- Made” Coverage Trigger

D&O policies are universally underwritten on a ‘claims-made’ basis. This translates to an unequivocal contractual requirement that the policyholder report claims made against an Insured to the insurer during the effective policy period. The only exception is in the case where an optional reporting ‘tail’ is purchased which affords the Insured the ability to report claims during a specified “extended reporting period,” as long as the wrongful act occurred during the effective period of the immediately preceding policy.